Step-by-step Participatory Design Process through Construction of Public Discourse and Community Development - An Analysis of New York Governors Island Park and Public Spaces -


Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture


This study, which takes the New York Governors Island project as an example, is an in-depth analysis of the process of participatory design for transforming a space that had long been isolated from the public into a park and/or communal space. We found that the process of participatory design at each project phase consists of the following. First, in the preparatory phase, there was construction of public discourse: efforts to find a consensus to develop the space in a public-driven direction was led by various initiatives. Second, by opening the site to the public before the design phase and by consistently inviting a wide range of activities, a community was formed and its attachment to the site was established. Third, after the competition until the completion of the project master planning phase, substantial and active participatory design was enabled through social interaction of the community formed and developed over many years. Fourth, in the detail design and implementation phase, a traditional and passive way of participatory design such as public hearings was used, thereby preserving the expertise of professional designers. Public participation was reflected most in the master planning phase to create a broad framework of the park, while professionals designed the more specific aspects; this efficient and effective approach enabled both citizens and professionals to dutifully take part in developing the park. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. The mode of participatory design should be varied at each project phase, from construction of public discourse, to formation and development of the community, to participatory design for social interaction. Furthermore, it is effective to preserve the unique roles of citizens and design professionals. It is particularly important to extend the process of participatory design to include the construction of public discourse and community.


Project Phase, Public Participation, Social Interaction


최혜영, & 배정한. (2016). 공론과 커뮤니티 형성을 통한 단계적 참여 설계. 한국조경학회지, 44(2), 11-24.